(2011). The criticisms toward symbolic interactionism were more intense earlier in its history than of late due to its perceived departure from scientific methodology … Strengths and Limitations of SYMBOLIC INTERACTIONISM LIMITATIONS The symbolic interationism theory of deviance also has various limitations surounding its concept. Mead argued that people's selves are social products, but that these selves are also purposive and creative, and believed that the true test of any theory was that it was "useful in solving complex social problems". With these definitions in mind, we now turn to sociological explanations of health and health care. birgerking – What I Really Do… ADD/ADHD – CC BY 2.0. Although physicians are certainly motivated, as many people are, by economic considerations, their efforts to extend their scope into previously nonmedical areas also stem from honest beliefs that people’s health and lives will improve if these efforts succeed. <>/ExtGState<>/XObject<>/ProcSet[/PDF/Text/ImageB/ImageC/ImageI] >>/MediaBox[ 0 0 595.32 841.92] /Contents 4 0 R/Group<>/Tabs/S/StructParents 0>> This means that various physical and mental conditions have little or no objective reality but instead are considered healthy or ill conditions only if they are defined as such by a society and its members (Buckser, 2009; Lorber & Moore, 2002). Considers the social environment in which learning takes place. %PDF-1.7 Lorber, J., & Moore, L. J. As noted earlier, the quality of health and health care differs greatly around the world and within the United States. Its growth in popularity coincides with the constructivist aspects of symbolic interactionism. Explain your answer. Paradigms provide a starting place to help understand what is being witnessed in day-to-day life and in experiments. This social institution in the United States is vast, to put it mildly, and involves more than 11 million people (physicians, nurses, dentists, therapists, medical records technicians, and many other occupations). Conrad, P. (2008). Although such discrimination is certainly unfortunate, critics say the movement is going too far in trying to minimize obesity’s risks (Diamond, 2011). rl=zy*+/[a����g��Ju�v��4��9C}��$�P�b)�z��Aa���So������P��D��1��w46j;�ԤA٩RAW3���n�1�=��j�O��:׮���a��T�$�Jac�6f���� �/��>&S��~j�N�mc�iӻ[Ȥ�·(�s�y@�@�>U��@�RMEԕ���Op����{c�@޾>�0�*��޵ �`�l�[�� !����˄�V���!F�~�Z�*eVg����55(� ������|Y�G��U��E�ǘ4�v�a9�L&ʗG�u��*_F@5T��e��E If someone is driving drunk and smashes into a tree, there is much less sympathy than if the driver had been sober and skidded off the road in icy weather. Journal of Gender Studies, 17, 345–358. First and foremost, they have to diagnose the person’s illness, decide how to treat it, and help the person become well. Many of the women and girls who have eating disorders receive help from a physician, a psychiatrist, a psychologist, or another health-care professional. Certainly there is some truth in this criticism of the conflict approach, but the evidence of inequality in health and medicine and of the negative aspects of the medical establishment’s motivation for extending its reach remains compelling. This concept suggests that Symbolic Interactionism is a construction of people’s social reality . - Symbolic interactionism excludes outside Talcott Parsons wrote that for a person to be perceived as legitimately ill, several expectations, called the sick role, must be met. Before discussing these perspectives, we must first define three key concepts—health, medicine, and health care—that lie at the heart of their explanations and of this chapter’s discussion. Since it sometimes describes society as a thing only in the minds of people (Slattery, 2007). It is important to note that no theory is right or wrong. “Critics of this theory claim that symbolic interactionism neglects the macro level of social interpretation – the ‘big picture.’ In other words, symbolic interactionists may miss the larger issues of society by focusing too closely on the ‘trees’ rather than the ‘forest’. Gives insight into small-scale human interactions. (2002). Baltimore, MD: Johns Hopkins University Press. Whitehead, K., & Kurz, T. (2008). These expectations include the perception that the person did not cause her or his own health problem. symbolic interactionism and presents his understandings which are most valuable guidelines: Whatever SI may be to my readers, for me it was not and is … (�s�x�w ����$(L\�$����$���d����J&k,�1�0�#�W�;'* Opium use was considered neither a major health nor legal problem. stream First, sick people should not be perceived as having caused their own health problem. Strengths. Symbolic interactionism tends to #40DayChallenge Day 30 Outline and explain two criticisms of Interactionist approaches to understanding society (10) One criticism of the Interactionist approach … Strengths and Weaknesses The objective of this paper is to show you the personal strengths and weakness that I identified by asking friends and family their opinion on the topic regarding yours truly, and by examining myself for areas that I am really good at (also known as strengths) and areas I need to improve (otherwise known as weaknesses). Table 13.1 “Theory Snapshot” summarizes what they say. Symbolic interactionism is a social theory that society is shaped by the manner in which people interact with each other. Symbolic Interactionism Symbolic interactionism is a theory that uses everyday interactions of individuals to explain society as a whole. Ƴ�&�t'�Jj�T���@�`U_�i/O�\�����S�Y+�Y��-;z�>������WZST���Gë�0�@!�ܢ~_�r��J����i�(#�R)�ٓ|j�� r-/��)V�B��/�%��h�9y����&��o��d*���Cx-�S��N�e�RC�€+K�����B{OP�Jb�/tm�-'�6���c[ ����� �PU PKU4�yr endobj The conflict approach also critiques efforts by physicians over the decades to control the practice of medicine and to define various social problems as medical ones. The conflict approach emphasizes inequality in the quality of health and in the quality of health care. Although much of his discussion implies a person temporarily enters a sick role and leaves it soon after following adequate medical care, people with chronic illnesses can be locked into a sick role for a very long time or even permanently. As usual, the major sociological perspectives that we have discussed throughout this book offer different types of explanations, but together they provide us with a more comprehensive understanding than any one approach can do by itself. Symbolic Interactionism is often times related and connected with social structure. In the nineteenth century, physicians claimed they were better trained than midwives and won legislation giving them authority to deliver babies. Once these problems become “medicalized,” their possible social roots and thus potential solutions are neglected. To further “desex” the situation and reduce any potential uneasiness, a female nurse is often present during the exam. Drugs in America: A documentary history. If a sick person fails to do so, she or he again loses the right to perform the sick role. After Ritalin, a drug that reduces hyperactivity, was developed, their behavior came to be considered a medical problem and the ADHD diagnosis was increasingly applied, and tens of thousands of children went to physicians’ offices and were given Ritalin or similar drugs. (Ed.). Strengths The theory is fairly simple, allowing for most people to understand its general assumptions and relate to them. The sociology of health, illness, and health care: A critical approach (6th ed.). The ADHD example just discussed also illustrates symbolic interactionist theory’s concerns, as a behavior that was not previously considered an illness came to be defined as one after the development of Ritalin. The medicalization of society: On the transformation of human conditions into treatable disorders. One of these criticisms is that symbolic interactionism is largely deprived of a real social envision. C���A���.��}�p��>����ȅ��a�bl���>��iiޝ����gYb�{����6JE����O[��o`�m����%��!Ͱ_� Obesity is a known health risk, but a “fat pride” or “fat acceptance” movement composed mainly of heavy individuals is arguing that obesity’s health risks are exaggerated and calling attention to society’s discrimination against overweight people. Basic Concepts of Symbolic Interactionism I. Through its concepts and guiding assumptions, symbolic interactionism fosters theoretically-driven research with implications for medical sociology, which we address here. The three major ways that the we are criticized through symbolic interactionism are our values, our language, and our actions. Phenomenology focuses … Lecture Notes Finally, as we have seen all week, each theory has several weaknesses that you should be aware of. øn other words, symbolic interactionism doesn’t put forward a society picture or theory. Gender and the social construction of illness (2nd ed.). If you imagine that paradigms are like lenses in a pair of eyeglasses, there are several different lens styles worn by sociologists and symbolic interactionism is one of them. He referred to these expectations as the sick role. Third, Parsons wrote approvingly of the hierarchy implicit in the physician-patient relationship. endobj People from disadvantaged social backgrounds are more likely to become ill and to receive inadequate health care. In formulating your answer, think about the person’s clothing, body position and body language, and other aspects of nonverbal communication. On the good side, they have believed they are the most qualified professionals to diagnose problems and to treat people who have these problems. Symbolic interactionism examines stratification from a micro-level perspective. Society’s inequities along social class, race and ethnicity, and gender lines are reproduced in our health and health care. ��S��� NѨ���]�o�Dcό�䱏n�7�������([V�q��KV'���i�I~���%~_�����^s���F+����d�fG��!�k��rsD�͇y��P��������/� ���0/�յ�ӏڷ�fO�/��r��ɈV�MتI�s�N��Z��͙��/���g�A�/�c���4�-�O{ m|�ް��S�Aב^�~�8����rD���G��Rr�ˌ��+���. 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