scientific article style), will be welcome. It also helps to protect us from feelings of hopelessness and depression, acting as a ‘guardian’ of our mental health. Consequently, changing contingencies could alter an individual’s behaviour. In the 1980s, Doona suggested that the problem of defining mental health was derived from the fact that the concept of health is not a measurable scientific term; she concluded that ‘health is probably a value judgement and more amenable to philosophical analysis’ (Doona 1982, p 13). The main theoretical frameworks linking factors in the built environment to health and wellbeing invoke some form of environmental stress theory, which sees wellbeing as determined by the balance between environmental stressors, such as noise, traffic, poor housing, or overcrowding, and countervailing protective factors, such as social integration (Halpern, 1995, Northridge et al., 2003). Be physically active. Defining wellbeing is key to discussing and conceptualising mental health and public mental health, with … Here is a summary of research on the psychological effects (positive & negative) of social media use … and treatment of mental illness. These social forces are acknowledged as contributors to mental health, as are personal qualities such as resilience, coping, physical health and wellbeing (Raphael 1993). Students that desire, will have the opportunity to use again the Warwick-Edinburgh Mental Wellbeing Scale (WEMWBS) for positively assessing their wellbeing at the end of the course. Recent acute health problems affect wellbeing most but longer-term chronic ill health also has an effect on wellbeing4. Whatever caused the pancreas to cease producing insulin is not known, despite the treatment being effective. You must demonstrate and communicate the themes and topics presented in the module in your piece and provide a critical description of the theories underpinning your SDA main piece in an accompanying piece. Psychological and sociological theories have influenced the development of nursing theories. 3. We analyzed the data regarding distress and anxiety caseness with logistic regression and the data regarding life … Failure of the child to satisfy these needs at any one of the stages will result in psychological difficulties that are carried into adulthood. Economics of wellbeing (Elena and Professor Nattavudh Powdthavee, WBS): In this session, we will explore whether money buys happiness (and if not, why not?). Russian physiologist Ivan Pavlov was the first to describe the relationship between stimulus and response. It includes being able to work productively and contribute to community life. In the second half of the session, we will consider what we can each do as individuals to enrich the environment and thus maximise our own wellbeing and maximise our capacity to fulfil our own innate potential. However, the lack of insulin is a symptom of the disease, not the cause. These concepts, the theories that attempt to explain them, and proposed interventions will be examined in this chapter. These theories deal only with observable behaviors. Read about the experience of being part of this module from former Economics student Qurratuain Amir Ihsan (Class 2020)! Explanations can be broadly divided into three paradigms: Within these paradigms the following are the major viewpoints to offer a theory of personality development or an explanation of human behaviour: Each of these seemingly disparate perspectives makes a substantial contribution to the understanding of how and why humans think, feel and behave as they do, and thereby identifies opportunities for prevention and treatment of mental illness. It was from his work with these patients that Freud hypothesised that the cause of their maladies was psychological. Furthermore, a definition in terms of the individual fails to acknowledge the contribution of social factors and the environment to mental health. Ironically, calling mental illness by another name has not reduced stigma; instead, it has broadened the application of stigma to now include mental health. Freud’s stages of psychosexual development are: Although the notions of unconscious motivations and defence mechanisms are helpful in interpreting behaviours, Freud’s version of psychoanalytic theory has not been without its critics. Let us then consider two main kinds of current wellbeing theory against a criterion of taking account of evidence on social determinants of mental health. At the beginning of the session, students will be directly involved in a practical workshop that will help them to understand this particular relationship while also reflecting on their personal experience. Wellbeing and Failure (Elena and Dr Jonathan Heron, IATL) : This session will take the form of a participatory workshop which will enable students to reflect upon issues of mental and physical health in relation to the interdisciplinary subject of failure. It was limited because a focus on individual factors implies individual responsibility, which may lead to victim blaming (McMurray 2007; Talbot & Verrinder 2005). Only gold members can continue reading. ‘Mental health’ as a euphemism for ‘mental illness’, Health professionals and the health literature have adopted the practice of using the terms. They are unconscious processes whereby anxiety experienced by the ego is reduced. Sarah Stewart-Brown will be present at this final session and support students in their reflective practice. Various subjective factors influence whether human behaviour is perceived as normal or abnormal. Evidence also … “Well-being theory denies that the topic of positive psychology is a real thing: rather the topic is a construct – well-being – which in turn has several measurable elements, each a real thing, each contributing to well-being, but none defining well-being.” (p.20). What influences how you think, feel and act? The effect of social media on mental health is complex and it depends a lot on the type of social media activity, real-life conditions, and type of interactions. (15 and 12 CATS; 50%) Here the link to a page which contains an explanation of what an SDA is and example from another module. Skinner formulated the notion of instrumental or operant conditioning in which reinforcers (rewards) contribute to the probability of a response being either repeated or extinguished. Pavlov demonstrated that a dog could learn to salivate (respond) to a non-food stimulus (a bell) if the bell was simultaneously presented with the food. Kittleson’s depiction of mental health as a positive construct separate from mental illness was welcome but limited. ), we are observing a crisis, which is growing each year, in student mental health and wellbeing in the UK universities, including the University of Warwick. Mental health is not merely the absence of mental illness rather it’s a state of overall wellbeing. In recent times, advances in technology have led to increased understanding of organic determinants of behaviour. The unconscious nature of Freud’s concepts and stages renders them difficult to test and therefore there is little evidence to support Freudian theory. Chapter 8 Theories on mental health and illness. Who are you? Behaviourism provided the first scientifically testable theories of human development as well as plausible explanations of conditions such as depression and anxiety. Six grand theories in mental health and psychology, often used in guiding mental health research, are explored here. Mental health includes our emotional, psychological, and social well-being. This is not a new notion—in the fourth century bc the Greek physi cian Hippocrates attributed mental disorder to brain pathology. Yoga and/or Tai Chi) and a higher intensity physical activity (i.e. 8. In the United States, Szasz (1961) argued that mental illness was a societal ill and not an individual sickness. Being active is not only great for your physical health and fitness. • Both physical health and mental health can influence wellbeing3. Mental health describes the capacity of individuals and groups to interact, inclusively and equitably, with one another and with their environment in ways that promote subjective wellbeing, and optimise opportunities for development and the use of mental abilities. Speculate how a proposed solution, based on theory and research, could impact mental health and well-being through behavior changes. Consider a person with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, for example. Fellow psychoanalyst Erik Erikson disagreed with Freud’s theory of psychosexual stages of development and proposed instead a psychosocial theory in which development occurred throughout the lifespan, not just through childhood as in Freud’s model (Erikson 1963; Behaviourism is a school of psychology founded in the United States by J B Watson in the early twentieth century with the purpose of objectively studying observable human behaviour, as opposed to examining the mind, which was the prevalent psychological method at the time in Europe. Nevertheless, despite the change of name there has been little shift in the focus of the services provided, as they continue to address the needs of the mentally ill, with minimal focus on mental health. In the main these patients were middle-class Viennese women. You will be given full tutor support both when planning your devised assessment and when bringing it to fruition. A recent perusal of contemporary mental health literature found that this practice is still prevalent in texts and journals (Fontaine 2004; Forster 2001; Meadows, Singh & Grigg 2007; Morrison-Valfre 2005; and journals such as the International Journal of Mental Health Nursing and Issues in Mental Health Nursing). Chapter 8 Theories on mental health and illness Patricia Barkway Key points • Mental health and mental illness are complex, distinct entities that are not necessarily mutually exclusive. For example, unresolved issues at the oral stage can lead to dependency issues in adulthood, and problems in the anal stage may lead to the child later developing obsessive-compulsive traits. Also known as psychobiology or the neuroscience perspective, the biomedical model asserts that, Among treatments that emerge from the biomedical model are medications that alter the function, production and reabsorbtion of neurotransmitters in the synaptic gap. It affects how we think, feel, and act. 5. Mental ill health is a considerable global public health burden, with major personal, societal and economical consequences.1 Local,2–5 national6–8 and international9,10 policies highlight the need for mental health promotion and early intervention strategies aimed at the reduction of this burden. He found that ‘personality development and emotional illness make up the bulk of mental health coverage in the texts’ (1989, p 40). Let us now look at these theories in more detail. The model proposes a scientific approach to the study of behaviour, a feature that behaviourists argue is lacking in psychoanalytic theory (and in humanistic psychology, which developed later). In 1993, Raphael drew attention to contextual and social issues that affect mental health, namely workplace factors, education, macro-economic and other forces. Some theories of well-being in philosophy and in psychology define people’s well-being in psychological terms. Biomedical model focuses on the physical processes, for instance biochemistry, pathology and physiology of a disease. In his quest to make psychology a true science, Watson further developed Pavlov’s work on stimulus–response learning and experimented by manipulating stimulus conditions. 2- Student Devised Assessment (SDA). His discovery became known as, Watson, who is attributed with being the founder of behaviourism, changed the focus of psychology from the study of inner sensations to the study of observable behaviour. This question has long engaged the interest and passion of philosophers, healers and health professionals and, in more recent times, scientists. Positive Psychology And Health. In general, the first part of the session will be an interactive lecture given by the subject expert with the second part being a workshop, led by the module leader together with the disciplinary expert, to facilitate the learning experience of the students. Though these are very common, mental health is a bigger concept that relates to overall wellbeing. scientific article style), will be welcome. Although personality and human behaviour theories provide explanations for the way in which individuals think, feel and behave, no theory has universal applicability. (50%), 1000 (12 CATS) word academic writing piece OR 2-4 minute video plus 300 word commentary. Thus, we analyse the direct and indirect pathways from past mental and physical health to present physical and mental health through intermediate levels of physical activity, social interaction and cigarette consumption. It was welcome because it enabled mental health to be viewed as more than merely the absence of the symptoms of mental illness. His ideas were overshadowed, however, when throughout the Dark Ages and later during the Renaissance, thinking and explanations shifted to witchcraft or demonic possession (Alloy, Riskind & Manos 2005; Davison, Neale & Kring 2004). 1.1 Evaluate two different views on the nature of mental wellbeing and mental health. The answer to the nature versus nurture debate is not simply either/or. 4. Through attempting to understand why humans behave as they do, a further question arises: are personality and human behaviour determined by genetics and biology (nature) or shaped by one’s upbringing, experiences and environmental factors (nurture)? The first references to ‘mental health’ being used as an alternative to ‘psychiatry’ occurred in the United Kingdom and the United States from the 1920s. Kittleson’s depiction of mental health as a positive construct separate from mental illness was welcome but limited. Personality and human behaviour theories underpin psychotherapeutic interventions for mental illness. According to Freud the mind is composed of three forces: Freud’s theory proposes that personality development progresses through four stages throughout childhood. There is little doubt that COVID-19 is taking a lasting toll on the mental health of millions of people. According to these theories, living well is getting what you want, feeling satisfied, experiencing pleasure, or the like. Let us now look at these theories in more detail. Form of assessment method designed by you with the full support of the tutor whereby you will create a piece of work (an article, a short film, a talk, a play, a workshop, a painting, a podcast and so on) that offers a solution to a controversial topic or a question that has arisen during the module. A higher level of well-being means that in some sense the individual's or group's condition is more positive.According to Naci and Ioannidis, "Wellness refers to diverse and interconnected dimensions of physical, mental, and social well-being that extend beyond the traditional definition of health. These social forces are acknowledged as contributors to mental health, as are personal qualities such as resilience, coping, physical health and wellbeing (Raphael 1993). The nature versus nurture debate will also be explored. It also helps determine how we handle stress, relate to others, and make healthy choices. Well-being integrates mental health (mind) and physical health (body) resulting in more holistic approaches to disease prevention and health promotion.6 2. 6. Well-being, wellbeing, or wellness is the condition of an individual or group. As reported in several national studies (‘Student mental wellbeing in higher education. 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