He insisted on employment based on ability rather than religion. [106], In 1685, Aurangzeb dispatched his son, Muhammad Azam Shah, with a force of nearly 50,000 men to capture Bijapur Fort and defeat Sikandar Adil Shah (the ruler of Bijapur) who refused to be a vassal. [167], The Mughals set out in November 1661. Aurangzeb constructed a small marble mosque known as the Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) in the Red Fort complex in Delhi. Leaving a detachment to garrison it, the Mughal army began to retake their territories in Assam. Succession did not necessarily fall to the eldest son. [53] This had caused resentment among the younger three, who sought at various times to strengthen alliances between themselves and against Dara. And what right have administrative works to meddle with bigotry? [citation needed]. Haroon Khalid (1 October 2018), "In India and Pakistan, religion makes one country’s hero the other’s villain", Ayesha Jalal, "Conjuring Pakistan: History as Official Imagining" in, Mubarak Ali, "Akbar in Pakistani Textbooks", École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, Jalal-ud-din Muhammad Akbar, Mughal Emperor, Nur-ud-din Muhammad Jahangir, Mughal Emperor, Shahab-ud-din Muhammad Shah Jahan I, Mughal Emperor, "Aurangzeb, as he was according to Mughal Records", "East-West Orientation of Historical Empires", "Architecture of Mughal India – Part 1", "Expansion and Contraction Patterns of Large Polities: Context for Russia", Development Centre Studies The World Economy Historical Statistics: Historical Statistics, "Prince Awrangzeb (Aurangzeb) facing a maddened elephant named Sudhakar", "Aurangzeb and Dara Shikoh's fight for the throne was entwined with the rivalry of their two sisters", "As Aurangzeb is Erased, Here are Some Tales From the Flip Side of History", "Religions â€“ Sikhism: Guru Tegh Bahadur", "Aurangzeb, Akbar, and the Communalization of History", "Temple Desecration and Indo-Muslim States", "A Gateway to Sikhism | Sri Guru Tegh Bhadur Sahib - A Gateway to Sikhism", Mughal Warfare: Indian Frontiers and Highroads to Empire, 1500–1700, "Emirates owner to sell Quran inscribed by Aurangzeb", "Asia Facts, information, pictures | Encyclopedia.com articles about Asia | Europe, 1450 to 1789: Encyclopedia of the Early Modern World", "The Jats: Their Role & Contribution to the Socio-economic Life and Polity of North & North-west India, Volume 2", "The Peacock Throne: The Drama of Mogul India", The World of To-day: The Marvels of Nature and the Creations of Man, "Day of Empire: How Hyperpowers Rise to Global Dominance—and Why They Fall. [99], In the year 1689, according to Mughal accounts, Sambhaji was put on trial, found guilty of atrocities[100] and executed. The Mughal Empire's port city of Surat was sacked twice by the Marathas during the reign of Aurangzeb and the valuable port was in ruins. [129][page needed] In 1690, realising the war was not going favourably for them, the Company sent envoys to Aurangzeb's camp to plead for a pardon. Shawls manufactured in the Mughal Empire had highly influenced other cultures around the world. His father again recalled him to the capital. See the article on. Abraham Eraly (2000), Emperors of the Peacock Throne: The Saga of the Great Mughals, Penguin Books. Ahmad, Fazl. [35], Under Aurangzeb's reign, Hindus rose to represent 31.6% of Mughal nobility, the highest in the Mughal era. A. Sultan Zianul Abidin B. Sikander C. Shah Mir D. Qutubuddin Ans. All India Press Trust of India Updated: July 24, 2019 2:20 am IST Further reading on Kashmir coins recommended is Nicholas Rhodes: The Coinage of the Sultans of Kashmir, published in Numismatic Digest, vol. See, the attention given to Rfn Aurangzeb wasnt because he was a Muslim, the attention was because of his background and the manner in which was murdered in cold blood. [112], Despite these innovations, most soldiers used bows and arrows, the quality of sword manufacture was so poor that they preferred to use ones imported from England, and the operation of the cannons was entrusted not to Mughals but to European gunners. In addition to disposing of all of his rival brothers, the new Mughal Emperor placed his father under house arrest in Agra Fort. With Shuja and Murad disposed of, and with his father immured in Agra, Aurangzeb pursued Dara Shikoh, chasing him across the north-western bounds of the empire. During Aurangzeb's childhood, however, Mughal politics made life difficult for the family. "[185], Unlike his predecessors, Aurangzeb considered the royal treasury to be held in trust for the citizens of his empire. [125], Like his father, Aurangzeb was not willing to acknowledge the Ottoman claim to the caliphate. By the end of this two-year campaign, into which Aurangzeb had been plunged at a late stage, a vast sum of money had been expended for little gain. [98], The 32nd Da'i al-Mutlaq (Absolute Missionary) of the Dawoodi Bohra sect of Musta'lÄ« Islam Syedna Qutubkhan Qutubuddin was executed by Aurangzeb, then governor of Gujarat, for heresy; on 27 Jumadil Akhir 1056 AH (1648 AD), Ahmedabad, India. I got 64 out of 70 But question no 30 mai mujhe glt dhekiya aur options bhi nahi diya… Zara koie bolo ess ka answer kay hai plzz Welcome to our site, jklatestinfo.com Here … Print. "[62], Aurangzeb then broke his arrangement with Murad Baksh, which probably had been his intention all along. Emperor Aurangzeb of India's Mughal Dynasty (November 3, 1618–March 3, 1707) was a ruthless leader who, despite his willingness to take the throne over the bodies of his brothers, went on to create a "golden age" of Indian civilization. When he was 18, the young prince was appointed viceroy of the Deccan region, south of the Mughal heartland. Shivaji was succeeded by his son, Sambhaji. He travelled a long distance to the Deccan to conquer the Marathas and eventually died at the age of 88, still fighting the Marathas. Aurangzeb was born on 3 November 1618, in Dahod, Gujarat. Francois Bernier writes how Karkanahs, or workshops for the artisans, particularly in textiles flourished by "employing hundreds of embroiderers, who were superintended by a master". Early in Aurangzeb's reign, various insurgent groups of Sikhs engaged Mughal troops in increasingly bloody battles. Aurangzeb's exchequer raised a record[citation needed] £100 million in annual revenue through various sources like taxes, customs and land revenue, et al. So poor was the area that grants were required from Malwa and Gujarat in order to maintain the administration and the situation caused ill-feeling between father and son. [86][need quotation to verify], Aurangzeb's policy on temples was mixed: he destroyed many, but also built many.[which? It is not known why Habib used the name of Mahmud on his coins. His head was sent to Aurangzeb as proof.[154]. Aurangzeb military entourage consisted of 16 cannons including the Azdaha Paikar (which, was capable of firing a 33.5 kg ordnance)[110] and Fateh Rahber (20 feet long with Persian and Arabic inscriptions). [54] Historian Satish Chandra says that "In the ultimate resort, connections among the powerful military leaders, and military strength and capacity [were] the real arbiters". [citation needed], In 1647, Shah Jahan moved Aurangzeb from Gujarat to be governor of Balkh, replacing a younger son, Murad Baksh, who had proved ineffective there. As there was no central authority among the Marathas, Aurangzeb was forced to contest every inch of territory, at great cost in lives and money. Aurangzeb offered Shah Shuja the governorship of Bengal. [42] In 1637, Aurangzeb married the Safavid princess Dilras Banu Begum, posthumously known as Rabia-ud-Daurani. The company's envoys prostrated themselves before the emperor, agreed pay a large indemnity, and promise to refrain from such actions in the future. [90] After the Jat rebellion in Mathura, Aurangzeb ordered the city's Kesava Deo temple demolished, and built an Eidgah in its place. [12], He was a notable expansionist; during his reign, the Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent, ruling over nearly all of the Indian subcontinent. Lahore: Sh. Like his predecessors, he issued land grants for the maintenance of Hindu temples. (Dr. Habib Siddiqui) What do Aurangzeb's 48-year reign is often cited as a "Golden Age" of the Mughal Empire, but it was rife with trouble and rebellions. Works of Hafez, by Muhammad Tahir Lahuri. He also made generous donations of jagirs to many temples to gain the goodwill of his Hindu subjects. The textile industry in the Mughal Empire emerged very firmly during the reign of the Mughal Emperor Aurangzeb and was particularly well noted by Francois Bernier, a French physician of the Mughal Emperor. It is believed the Shaivas in Kashmir were known as Kauls. The brothers must have grown up knowing that one day they would have to fight one another for power. The young Aurangzeb studied statecraft and military tactics, the Quran, and languages in preparation for his future role. Sultan Zianul Abidin ruled between A. Shuja also fled to Arakan (Burma) and was executed there. To make matters worse, the empire became over-extended and Aurangzeb imposed ever higher taxes in order to pay for his wars. De Agostini / Biblioteca Ambrosiana / Getty Images. There are several firmans (orders) in his name, supporting temples and gurudwaras, including Mahakaleshwar temple of Ujjain, Balaji temple of Chitrakoot, Umananda Temple of Guwahati and the Shatrunjaya Jain temples, among others. [22][23] He also patronized works of Islamic and Arabic calligraphy. Perhaps the most disastrous revolt of all was the Pashtun Rebellion of 1672–1674. The Mughal army was never able to completely quash Hindu resistance in the Deccan, and the Sikhs of northern Punjab rose up against Aurangzeb repeatedly throughout his reign. Shah Jahan lived there for eight years, until 1666. Shah Jahan was so angry about his tardiness that he stripped Aurangzeb of his viceroy of Deccan title. Subsequent to the policies of his three predecessors, he endeavored to make Islam a dominant force in his reign. The 9-year-old Aurangzeb was reunited with his parents at Agra in 1628. Aurangzeb also ordered a rescue raid on a temple, in order to rescue a Rajasthan minister's female family members who went there on a pilgrimage. He was told that if he is successful in converting Kashmiri Pandits to Islam, the whole of India would convert. The ships, commanded by Sidi Yaqub, were manned by Mappila (loyal to Ali Raja Ali II) and Abyssinian sailors. Most of the students answered it wrong. [50] The contest for power was primarily between Dara Shikoh and Aurangzeb because, although all four sons had demonstrated competence in their official roles, it was around these two that the supporting cast of officials and other influential people mostly circulated. Aurangzeb craftily recruited his younger brother Murad, convincing him that together they could remove Dara and Shuja and place Murad on the throne. In Kashmir there used to be a Faujdar at Anantnag, then known as Islamabad. Shah Jahan had already moved away from the liberalism of Akbar, although in a token manner rather than with the intent of suppressing Hinduism,[70][b] and Aurangzeb took the change still further. [47], In 1645, he was barred from the court for seven months and mentioned his grief to fellow Mughal commanders. It is sited in the courtyard of the shrine of the Sufi saint Shaikh Burhan-u'd-din Gharib, who was a disciple of Nizamuddin Auliya of Delhi. But in a daring raid on the governor's palace in Pune during a midnight wedding celebration, led by Shivaji himself, the Marathas killed Shaista Khan's son and Shivaji maimed Shaista Khan by cutting off three fingers of his hand. ", هندوستان ميں فارسى تاريخ نگارى: ٧١ويں صدى كے آخرى نصف سے ٨١ويں صدى كے پهلے نصف تک فارسى تاريخ نگارى كا ارتقاء, Aurangzeb, as he was according to Mughal Records, The great Aurangzeb is everybody’s least favourite Mughal – Audrey Truschke | Aeon Essays, 2016 international conference on Sunni Islam in Grozny, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Aurangzeb&oldid=996474777, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia extended-confirmed-protected pages, All Wikipedia articles written in Indian English, Articles containing Persian-language text, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from July 2020, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from February 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2016, Vague or ambiguous geographic scope from July 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2018, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from January 2018, All articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases, Articles with specifically marked weasel-worded phrases from January 2018, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2012, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2020, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from September 2012, Wikipedia articles needing page number citations from November 2020, Articles lacking reliable references from May 2019, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2018, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from April 2015, Articles containing Marathi-language text, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, गोंयची कोंकणी / Gõychi Konknni, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, In 1669, the Hindu Jat peasants of Bharatpur around, This page was last edited on 26 December 2020, at 20:48. [75], He learnt that at Multan, Thatta, and particularly at Varanasi, the teachings of Hindu Brahmins attracted numerous Muslims. Dr. Kallie Szczepanski is a history teacher specializing in Asian history and culture. The structure of Bibi Ka Maqbara in Aurangabad, which now is a historical monument was constructed by the sons of Aurangzeb in remembrance of their mother. [citation needed] Shah Jahan was outraged to see Aurangzeb enter the interior palace compound in military attire and immediately dismissed him from his position of viceroy of the Deccan; Aurangzeb was also no longer allowed to use red tents or to associate himself with the official military standard of the Mughal emperor. The Indian ships had been returning home from their annual pilgrimage to Mecca when the pirate struck, capturing the Ganj-i-Sawai, reportedly the largest ship in the Muslim fleet, and its escorts in the process. Militarily and politically, Mughal efforts to control the Deccan continued to fail. Babur, the founder of the Mughal Dynasty, came from Afghanistan to conquer India, and the family had always relied upon the fierce Pashtun tribesmen of Afghanistan and what is now Pakistan to secure the northern borderlands. According to Sikh sources, approached by Kashmiri Pandits to help them retain their faith and avoid forced religious conversions, Guru Tegh Bahadur took on Aurangzeb. What we need today in India -- and indeed in the world -- is a Dara Shikoh FACT, the Trust which I head, is holding an exhibition on 'Aurangzeb as he was according to Mughal documents', from February 16 to 20 at New Delhi's Habitat Center, the Palm Court Gallery, from 10 am to 9 pm. The Satnamis initiated their march upon Delhi and overran small-scale Mughal infantry units. When Aurangzeb's sister died in a fire in 1644, he took three weeks to return home to Agra rather than rushing back immediately. [131] Meanwhile, Aurangzeb shut down four of the English East India Company's factories, imprisoned the workers and captains (who were nearly lynched by a rioting mob), and threatened to put an end to all English trading in India until Every was captured. Other weapons used during the period included rockets, cauldrons of boiling oil, muskets and manjaniqs (stone-throwing catapults). The Qutbshahis had constructed massive fortifications throughout successive generations on a granite hill over 400 ft high with an enormous eight-mile long wall enclosing the city. From Wahhabi indoctrination to rabble-rousing speeches of the religious leaders and clergy are the reasons for radicalisation of the youth. Shuja, the second son, was a hedonist who used his position as governor of Bengal as a platform for acquiring beautiful women and wine. I do not know who I am, nor what I have been doing," the dying old man confessed to his son, Azam, in February 1707. [169] Skirmishes continued between the Mughals and Ahoms after the rise of Chakradhwaj Singha, who refused to pay further indemnity to the Mughals and during the wars that continued the Mughals suffered great hardships. About Press Copyright Contact us Creators Advertise Developers Terms Privacy Policy & Safety How YouTube works Test new features If the (elephant) fight had ended fatally for me, it would not have been a matter of shame. The expense in gold and rupees can hardly be accurately estimated. [23][191] His modest open-air grave in Khuldabad, Aurangabad, Maharashtra expresses his deep devotion to his Islamic beliefs. Switching to diplomacy and bribery along with force of arms, the Mughals eventually split the rebels and partially suppressed the revolt, although they never managed to wield effective authority outside the main trade route. [citation needed]. In his old age, he was under the charms of his concubine, Udaipuri Bai. Unfortunately, his choices left the Mughal Empire itself far less able to fend off foreign imperialism in the end. The campaign was successful and Singh was removed from power. [156] With this event, the Marathas transformed into a powerful military force, capturing more and more Adil Shahi territories. Prince Khurram was the favorite to become the next emperor, and his father bestowed the title Shah Jahan Bahadur, or "Brave King of the World," on the young man. [citation needed], Mughal cannon making skills advanced during the 17th century. Tomb of Sufi saint, Syed Abdul Rahim Shah Bukhari constructed by Aurangzeb. [66], During his reign, Aurangzeb generally maintained a similar policy on both Hindu temples and Islamic mosques. In a sham trial, he was found guilty of murder and violence, atrocities[96] against the Muslims of Burhanpur and Bahadurpur in Berar by Marathas under his command. Aurangzeb also sent his general Raja Jai Singh of Amber, a Hindu Rajput, to attack the Marathas. [97], In 1675 the Sikh leader Guru Tegh Bahadur was arrested on orders by Aurangzeb, found guilty of blasphemy by a Qadi's court and executed. In addition, he ordered the enslavement of Christian missionaries. Aurangzeb waged continuous war in the Deccan for more than two decades with no resolution. Many Indian historians consider his death year 1707 as the one which marks the end of Medieval Indian history and the start of Modern Indian history when classifying Indian history. The Marathas also expanded further South into Southern India defeating the independent local rulers there capturing Jinji in Tamil Nadu. [94] Aurangzeb is accused of poisoning his imprisoned nephew Sulaiman Shikoh. I will keep improving this with time - please feel free to suggest edits and changes if any. [101][102], Guru Tegh Bahadur was publicly executed in 1675 on the orders of Aurangzeb in Delhi[103], Sarmad Kashani, a Jewish convert to Islam and Sufi mystic was accused of heresy and executed. [108] One of the most impressive Mughal cannons is known as the Zafarbaksh, which is a very rare composite cannon, that required skills in both wrought-iron forge welding and bronze-casting technologies and the in-depth knowledge of the qualities of both metals.[109]. [citation needed], The Battle of Saraighat was fought in 1671 between the Mughal empire (led by the Kachwaha king, Raja Ramsingh I), and the Ahom Kingdom (led by Lachit Borphukan) on the Brahmaputra river at Saraighat, now in Guwahati. She has taught at the high school and university levels in the U.S. and South Korea. Jahanara, certainly, interceded at various times on behalf of all of the princes and was well-regarded by Aurangzeb even though she shared the religious outlook of Dara. Aurangbad's two jagirs (land grants) were moved there as a consequence of his return and, because the Deccan was a relatively impoverished area, this caused him to lose out financially. The truth about Aurangzeb. [50], After regaining some of his health, Shah Jahan moved to Agra and Dara urged him to send forces to challenge Shah Shuja and Murad, who had declared themselves rulers in their respective territories. [126] The Sultan urged Aurangzeb to wage holy war against Christians. Even as Aurangzeb drove west, deep into Maratha territory â€“ notably conquering Satara â€” the Marathas expanded eastwards into Mughal lands â€“ Malwa and Hyderabad. Bhagavānadāsa Gupta, Contemporary Sources of the Mediaeval and Modern History of Bundelkhand (1531–1857), vol. By 1674, the situation had deteriorated to a point where Aurangzeb camped at Attock to personally take charge. [127], In 1686, the Honourable East India Company, which had unsuccessfully tried to obtain a firman that would grant them regular trading privileges throughout the Mughal Empire, initiated the so-called Child's War. His reign also saw the building of the Lahore Badshahi Masjid and Bibi Ka Maqbara in Aurangabad for his wife Rabia-ud-Daurani. Aurangzeb was nominally in charge of the force sent to Bundelkhand with the intent of subduing the rebellious ruler of Orchha, Jhujhar Singh, who had attacked another territory in defiance of Shah Jahan's policy and was refusing to atone for his actions. Foreseeing defeat, Shivaji agreed for a truce and a meeting with Aurangzeb at Delhi. In late 1657, Shah Jahan became ill. His beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal had died in 1631 and he never really got over her loss. Seventeenth-century Badshahi Masjid built by Aurangzeb in Lahore. [46] In the same year, 1637, Aurangzeb was placed in charge of annexing the small Rajput kingdom of Baglana, which he did with ease. Shuja was being chased through Bihar and the victory of Aurangzeb proved this to be a poor decision by Dara Shikoh, who now had a defeated force on one front and a successful force unnecessarily pre-occupied on another. Aurangzeb constructed a small marble mosque known as the Moti Masjid (Pearl Mosque) in the Red Fort complex in Delhi. [93] Aurangzeb had his allied brother Prince Murad Baksh held for murder, judged and then executed. He further writes how "Artisans manufacture of silk, fine brocade, and other fine muslins, of which are made turbans, robes of gold flowers, and tunics worn by females, so delicately fine as to wear out in one night, and cost even more if they were well embroidered with fine needlework". All errors and omissions are regretted. Aurangzeb had him executed for apostasy from Islam and presented his head to their father. Aurangzeb expanded Mughal rule both north and south, but his constant military campaigns and religious intolerance rankled many of his subjects. [105], In 1664, Aurangzeb appointed Shaista Khan subedar (governor) of Bengal. History section provides you all type of mcq questions on Mughal Empire with explanations. [80] It may be noted that women, children, elders, the handicapped, the ill, the insane, monks, hermits, slaves, and musta'mins—non-Muslim foreigners who only temporarily reside in Muslim lands were exempted from the jizya. As an adjunct to resolving the financial difficulties, the proposal would also extend Mughal influence by accruing more lands. Edward James Rap;son, Sir Wolseley Haig and Sir Richard, 1937. While formally declaring the state to be an Islamic one, showing respect to the, It has however been argued that the Mughal emperor had political motives for this particular execution. [190] He died at his military camp in Bhingar near Ahmednagar on 20 February 1707 at the age of 89, having outlived many of his children. [160] While Aurangzeb continued to send troops against him, Shivaji expanded Maratha control throughout the Deccan until his death in 1680. Yesterday I ask a question, who is known as poet of Kashmir. On 4 July 1688, Raja Ram Jat was captured and beheaded. In 1687, Aurangzeb led his grand Mughal army against the Deccan Qutbshahi fortress during the Siege of Golconda. He described his experiences in Travels in the Mughal Empire. Between 1679 and 1707, the number of Hindu officials in the Mughal administration rose by half, many of them Marathas and Rajputs. Aurangzeb also ordered the destruction of Hindu temples, although the exact number is not known. Among 16 governors, subedars, of Kashmir during Aurangzeb’s rule, Fazil Khan was most capable & God-fearing man. Although they were displeased with his policies, they did not abandon Aurangzeb during his lifetime, but they revolted against his son as soon as the emperor died. [131] The Privy Council and East India Company offered a massive bounty for Every's apprehension, leading to the first worldwide manhunt in recorded history. [150][151][152][153] Aurangzeb appointed Mohammad Bidar Bakht as commander to crush the Jat rebellion. The rebels were defeated and Akbar fled south to seek refuge with Sambhaji, Shivaji's successor. However, circumstances at the Mughal court were beyond the control of the Raja, and when Shivaji and his son Sambhaji went to Agra to meet Aurangzeb, they were placed under house arrest because of Shivaji's apparent misbehaviour, from which they managed to effect a daring escape. Historian Naimur Rahman Farooqi writes that, "By 1694, Aurangzeb's ardour for the Sharifs of Mecca had begun to wane; their greed and rapacity had thoroughly disillusioned the Emperor ... Aurangzeb expressed his disgust at the unethical behavior of the Sharif who appropriated all the money sent to the Hijaz for his own use, thus depriving the needy and the poor. He was a 2nd generation Indian Army soldier from a [165] On March 3, 1707, the 88-year-old Aurangzeb died in central India. [95], In 1689, the second Maratha Chhatrapati (King) Sambhaji was brutally executed by Aurangzeb. She notes that the populist but "fairly old-fashioned" explanation for the decline is that there was a reaction to Aurangzeb's oppression. [137], Traditional and newly coherent social groups in northern and western India, such as the Marathas, Rajputs, Hindu Jats, Pashtuns, and Sikhs, gained military and governing ambitions during Mughal rule, which, through collaboration or opposition, gave them both recognition and military experience. Rifleman Aurangzeb of the Jammu and Kashmir Light Infantry (JAKLI) posted with 44 Rashtriya Rifles (RR) was killed by terrorists on 14 Jun 2018 after he was abducted at gunpoint near Shopian in south Kashmir. Sultan Suleiman II's friendly postures were ignored by Aurangzeb. With the onset of winter, he and his father had to make a largely unsatisfactory deal with the Uzbeks, giving away territory in exchange for nominal recognition of Mughal sovereignty. [210], Aurangzeb had also been attributed various other titles including Caliph of The Merciful, Monarch of Islam, and Living Custodian of God. Although the Qutbshahis maintained the impregnability of their walls, at night Aurangzeb and his infantry erected complex scaffolding that allowed them to scale the high walls. Muhammad Ashraff, 1993. This was largely due to a substantial influx of Marathas, who played a key role in his successful Deccan campaign. [13] During his lifetime, victories in the south expanded the Mughal Empire to 4 million square kilometres,[14] and he ruled over a population estimated to be over 158 million subjects,[13] Under his reign, India surpassed Qing China to become the world's largest economy and biggest manufacturing power, worth nearly a quarter of global GDP and more than the entirety of Western Europe, and its largest and wealthiest subdivision, the Bengal Subah,[15] signaled the proto-industrialization. Shaista Khan drove into Maratha territory and took up residence in Pune. He said, “Guru Tegh Bahadur asked them to tell him [209], Al-Sultan al-Azam wal Khaqan al-Mukarram Hazrat Abul Muzaffar Muhy-ud-Din Muhammad Aurangzeb Bahadur Alamgir I, Great Mosque of Aurungzeb and the adjoining Ghats. The latter had formerly been a companion to Dara Shukoh. Aurangzeb suffered his father's displeasure by not returning to Agra immediately but rather three weeks later. During his 49-years rule